提出專利申請前需要再審慎評估的事項

決定發明有沒有價值的因素很多,如果發明人在申請專利前沒有好好評估這些因素就貿然申請專利,有可能申請到的專利只是一張無用的廢紙,並不能為發明人帶來多大的利益。有哪些因素是發明人在申請專利前必須思考的?

(一)確定自己的發明是目前所能想到最好的發明:第一個發明通常不是最好的發明。很多發明人在發明一項新的產品之後就迫不及待的去申請專利,去沒有進一步思考是不是還有其他更好的改良方法,以致於在取得專利之後,競爭對手可以藉由這些公開資料的啟發,很容易迴避專利並發展出更好或成本更低的產品。因此,若發明人在申請專利前,能仔細思考所有的可能性,而不只是專注在原始構想上,不僅能讓自己的產品更加完善,申請出來的專利也能保護的更周全。未來即使競爭對手模仿,也會因為專利迴避以及成本的問題無法在市場上生存。

(二)確定沒有其他專利讓發明不具有可專利性:不具有可專利性的發明是不值得申請專利的。在投注金錢和時間申請專利前,發明人應先進行可專利性的檢索,評估專利獲准的機會,避免將時間與金錢浪費在不具有專利性的發明上。

一般可專利性的檢索主要是利用專利檢索(詳見知己知彼的第二頁)找出可能會阻礙發明獲得專利的相關專利。前面提到可專利性包括新穎性與不顯而易見性,必須同時具備新穎性與不顯而易見性的發明才可具有可專利性。利用專利檢索結果,對發明的可專利性作初步評估時,假使沒有任何專利揭露一模一樣的發明,那麼發明就可具有新穎性;如果沒有專利提供動機或建議合併不同的專利可發展出相同發明,那麼發明就可具有不顯而易見性。舉例來說:A發明人發明了一個可移動式的桌子,利用桌腳下的輪子讓桌子能自由移動,如果從來沒有專利揭露這樣的桌子,這個發明就可具有新穎性。但是,如果沒有任何專利揭露這種可移動式的桌子,但卻有專利揭露利用椅腳下的輪子可以讓椅子自由移動,並提到可以將輪子應用在任何家具上,其他人很容易就可以藉由這個專利的啟發,在桌腳下裝置輪子,這個桌子的發明就不具有不顯而易見性。但如果發明的輪子結構非常特殊,從沒有專利揭露這樣的輪子結構,則發明還是可具有不顯而易見性。

要注意的是,可專利性的分析並不單純只是針對相關專利做分析,除了專利資料之外,作進一步的可專利性分析時,還應包括相關產業的資料。

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