專利範圍撰寫技術

9 posts / 0 new
最新回應
訪客 (未確認)
訪客 的照片
專利範圍撰寫技術

1 如何寫好專利:
1.1 需對全球專利作詳細檢索:
全球專利檢索好處如下:
可以知道對手的發展,避免浪費金錢投資開發。
你可以經專利檢索得知,你可以拿到多寬的專利範圍,同時評估此專利範圍是否值得妳投資。
專利檢索可以事先知道,妳是否有侵犯別人的專利!!
專利檢索可以事先知道,如何做好專利迴避設計,避免侵權!!
1.2 詳細說明技術背景:
專利必須詳細說明技術背景,同時必須將和妳發明的產品最接近的專利,將最接近的專利引證出來。
不把最接近的專利引證出來,會產生下列風險:
A:審查官審查妳的專利時,若查到一篇和你最接近的專利,妳的專利就會沒辦法過。
B:台灣的審查官通常不太檢索專利,因此妳申請的專利很容易準,改天妳的專利發大財了,競爭對手想做妳的專利時,他會找出和你最接近的專利,詳細寫出一些理由送到專利局,到時候妳的專利很容易被撤消。
C:一般人都不會把最接近的專利寫出來,因為要節省時間,另外,找出最接近的專利要看過至少數百件之全球專利。
D:當專利審查官,找到和你最接近的專利時,由於妳的當初沒把最接近的專利講出來,當你想要補充時,專利法已經不准妳再補充了,到時候,真是有口難言。
引證最接近的專利,好處如下:
A:你若將最接近的專利講出來,可減少審查官審查之時間,妳的專利很快就會準。
B:你若將最接近的專利講出來,改天妳的專利發大財時,競爭對手不可以拿妳C:講出的最接近專利來推翻妳的專利,他若是計劃要推翻妳的專利,他要找出你沒提過之專利才能推翻,妳講過的專利他都不可以用。
D:你若將最接近的專利講出來,我想全世界沒有人能夠推翻妳的專利了,妳就可以高枕無憂了,不會整天害怕被人撤銷專利權。
E:你若將最接近的專利講出來,審查官不得利用妳講出來的最接近的專利,來推翻妳的申請案,因此不要害怕將最接近的專利的專利講出來。
1.3專利迴避:
寫專利必須同時考慮專利迴避設計。
當妳在寫專利時,除了將妳最天真的想法申請專利外,必須模擬、推測、幻想對手會如何做出和你競爭的產品,同時將這些競爭的產品同時寫進妳的說明書,就算是天馬行空也無傷大雅,寫出來的好處如下:
A:就算這些胡思亂想之構想,無法寫進專利範圍,但是可避免競爭對手將這些構想申請專利。
B:專利說明書寫的越詳細越好,內容越多越好,實施圖越多越好,一般人通常會跟妳講圖不要畫太多,以避免畫死專利,不要寫太多以免寫死專利,真是一大騙局!!千萬記得!!只要你漏講的部分都有可能看過你的專利的人,再用妳的專利來加一些東西申請專利,等妳發現時,為時已晚。
C:專利的價值在於,妳的專利能阻擋別人的程度,基本上你寫越多當然能阻擋別人越多。
1.4專利範圍
一份專利申請書必須至少包含3項獨立項才能有效保護妳的產品,避免被仿冒或競爭。
1.5專利侵權

專利範圍撰寫技術
引言:專利的價值在於專利範圍的撰寫,一份高價值的專利範圍能保證無人能破解你的產品,因此專利範圍撰寫技術相當值錢,也因此市場上不會有人公開教導專利範圍撰寫技術,筆者耗費許多金錢委託多間國內外專利事務所專寫專利,同時參加多種專利研討會,從許多人口中套出一點許技術(因為沒人肯說,只能用套),加上由國外購買相關書籍以及參閱國外專利,及本身撰寫專利之實務,才彙集此專利範圍撰寫技巧,此份專利範圍撰寫技巧真是一字千金。
2.1專利範圍之項數必須連續
1. 一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
2. 如申請專利範圍第1項所述之一種手電筒,其中,上述光源為發光二極體。
3. 一種手電筒之使用方法,其包括下列步驟:
將電池裝進手把;
打開開關。
4. 如申請專利範圍第3項所述之一種手電筒之使用方法,其中更包含將電池蓋鎖緊之步驟。
2.2 前言
1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

一種手電筒:為前言。
撰寫專利時前言越短越好。
A專利請求項:
1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
B專利請求項:
1.一種手電筒係應用於照明,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
B侵犯A,因為一種手電筒包含一種手電筒係應用於照明。
A 若將一種手電筒應用於照明,A就侵犯B,當然A將一種手電筒用於照明外之用途就不侵犯B。
因此撰寫前言時需思考產品是否有其它用途,思考是否將此用途用不同獨立項寫入專利請求項,若是不將其它用途寫入請求項,則必須於說明書中說明其它用途。
1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
2.一種手電筒係應用於照明,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

前言較佳為越短越好,因為前言越長被專利迴避之機率越高,最好的前言是只寫出產品名稱,若是有習知技術出現,可用較上位之前言用途來限制請求項。
1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
A發現手電筒照射樹木會促進生長速率,若是發現一種手電筒為習知技術,可改為:
1.一種手電筒係應用於生長用途,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
若A之專利請求項為:
1.一種手電筒係應用於促進樹木生長,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

1.一種手電筒係應用於促進植物生長,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
生長、樹木生長、植物生長三者之範圍為生長>植物生長>樹木生長。
生長稱上位,因此前言必須用上位,以免專利迴避,至於前言要用到如何上位之語言則需作全球專利檢索。
Summary
Use descriptive preambles defining the nature of the combination claimed. Do not put unnecessary limitations even in the preamble. Assume every word you write in a claim is critical, and may some day be used against your client, to restrict the scope of his invention.
2.3 開放性敘述(其包含)
Transition from Preamble to Body-”Comprising
COMPRING為美國專利之用法,有許多不肖事務所不寫COMPRING,因此申請美國專利時需特別注意。

What is claimed is:

1. An electrically driven light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp assembly comprising;

an electrically insulating circuit board (12) having opposed first and second surfaces (14 and 16),

electrically conductive circuit traces (18) on said first surface (14) of said circuit board (12),

a plurality of LEDs (20, 22 or 24) each having a pair of electrical leads (26) in electrical engagement with said traces (18),

each of said LEDs (20, 22 or 24) including a heat sink (28),

a heat dissipater (30) disposed in parallel relationship to said circuit board (12),

said assembly characterized by said circuit board (12) presenting a hole (32) therethrough and around each LED (20, 22 or 24), and said heat sink (28) of each LED (20, 22 or 24) being disposed in thermal contact with said heat dissipater (30) for conveying heat from said LEDs (20, 22 or 24) to said heat dissipater (30).

COMPRING 代表包含全部元件就算侵犯。

A B C
COMPRING COMPRING COMPRING
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4
5

B不侵犯A 因為 B少4。
C侵犯A因為C COMPRING 1234。

Summary
Use the transition “comprising” or “which comprises” except in very unusual cases.
2.4封閉性敘述(其包含)
”Consisting”-”Consisting Essentially Of”
CONSISTING 為美國專利之用法,很多不肖專利事務所,申請美國專利時使用CONSISTING已經嚴重損壞申請人權益。

A B C
COMPRING COMPRING COMPRING
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4
5

B不侵犯A 因為 B少4。
C不侵犯A因為C 多了5。

Summary
Do not use the expressions “consisting” or “consisting” essen-tially” unless the examiner requires them or where additional ele-ments would not ever be expected with the claimed combination, as in a particular composition of matter. They are usually used in chemical cases due to the unpredictability of adding a new ele-ment to a chemical combination.
2.5 專利主體
Body of the Claim
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

主體:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

主體需包含所有必須之元件,同時包含個元件之連接關係。
元件:一手把、一開關、一光源。
連接關係:上述開關設於上述手把前端、上述光源與上述開關連接。

主體千萬不可包含非必要元件,以免專利迴避發生。
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接;
一電池,上述電池設於上述手把。

將電池放入專利範圍,對手若是販賣部裝電池的手電筒,不會侵犯你的專利,因此萬萬不可將非必要元件或是非必要之字眼寫入請求項,切記!
Summary
The body of the claim lists the main elements of the combination (parts, steps, chemicals, etc) and tells how they work together or are related to each other. Most claims are directed to combina-tions of two or more elements. Stick to technical description, and eschew unnecessary, redundant, surplus, and any laudatory state-ments. Tell what the invention is, not how good it is. The claim must be readily understandable, and clear as to what it covers.
2.6 專利格式與標點符號之使用
Format and Punctuation; Subparagraph Form
專利格式要簡明易讀,較佳為使用單句,單句後加上;號,最後一句加上。號。

一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
Summary
Use the subparagraph form for claims. Make claims as easy as possible for readers to understand and to follow what the elementsare. The examiner will appreciate it, as well as everyone else who ever reads the patent.
2.7 獨立項 INDEPENDENT CLAIM
獨立項代表專利之所有必要元件之組成,專利全部價值在於獨立項。

1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

上述為一獨立項,該獨立項講
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

任何人不得生產、製造、販賣、使用,獨立項所述之產品。

一件產品應該有至少3個獨立項,分別為產品結構、產品製造方法、產品使用方法。

產品結構
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

產品製造方法
一種製造手電筒方法…..

產品使用方法
一種手電筒之使用方法,其包括下列步驟:
將電池裝進手把;
打開開關。

2.8附屬項
Dependent Claims
附屬項為獨立項之延伸,當審查官發現妳申請之獨立項為習知技術時,將後一附屬項加到獨立項,以獲得專利權;附屬項可分別賣給不同人。

1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
2.如申請專利範圍第1項所述之一種手電筒,其中,上述光源為發光二極體。
3.如申請專利範圍第1項所述之一種手電筒,其中,上述光源為雷射二極體。
第2項為附屬項,其句法為:
如申請專利範圍第X項所述之XXXX,其中,

第2項保護之產品為:
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一發光二極體,上述發光二極體與上述開關連接。

當審查官發現獨立項習知技術時,你必須將附屬項加到獨立項以取得專利,此時獨立項為:
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一發光二極體,上述發光二極體與上述開關連接。

當你的專利賣給別人時,你可以將第二項賣給A,第三項賣給B,此時A、B所獲得的專利分別為
A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一發光二極體,上述光源與上述開關連接。
B
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一雷射二極體,上述雷射二極體與上述開關連接。

Summary
Use dependent claims extensively, most of the time when you wish to resent a second claim that adds elements or features to a prior claim, whether the prior claim is dependent or independent. Either tell more about elements in the previous claim, or add ele-ments to that claim, or both.But you must further restrict a pre-vious claim in some manner. Be careful, in practice, with dependent claims, particularly those adding detailed features, that you really need every feature of the main claim for patent-ability. If not, stop and write a new independent claim.
2.9 多項附屬項
Multiple Dependent Claims
1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
2.如申請專利範圍第1項所述之一種手電筒,其中,上述光源為發光二極體。
3如申請專利範圍第1項所述之一種手電筒,其中,上述光源為雷射二極體。
4. 如申請專利範圍第2或3項所述一種手電筒,其中,上述手電筒更包含一燈罩,上述燈罩設於上述光源前端。
第4項為多項附屬項,其語法為:
如申請專利範圍第A或A2項所述之XXX,其中…

多項附屬項包含至少兩項以上故稱多項附屬項。

第4項保護之產品分別為
A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一發光二極體,上述光源與上述開關連接;
一燈罩,上述燈罩設於上述光源前端。

B
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一雷射二極體,上述雷射二極體與上述開關連接;
一燈罩,上述燈罩設於上述光源前端。

Summary
Multiple dependent claims may be used. Their preamble form is important. A multiple dependent claim cannot be dependent on another such claim. They have high filing fees, as compared with other claim forms, as discussed next.

Apparatus or Machine Claims
3.0 裝置專利範圍的前言
Preambles for Apparatus Claims
前言之撰寫,原則上一越短越好,除非你的專利是限定於特殊用途,否則不要將用途寫入前言。
A 一種輪子,其用於機車,其包括….
B 一種輪子,其用於汽車,其包括….
C 一種輪子,其用於運輸器,其包括…
D 一種輪子,其包括…
因此產品專利之前言有不同寫法,原則上是不寫用途;若是寫出用途,該用途可盡量以產品之功能為導向。
A 一種輪子,其具耐攝氏1000度之功能,其包括..
B 一種具輪子,其具防滑功能,其包括..
C 一種耐高溫之輪子,其包括..

兩件完全相同的專利,但一件用於A領域,一件用於B領域,此時為了得到B領域之專利,才需將B領域加到前言。

A 一種釣魚用螢光棒,其包含…
B 一種檢查子宮頸用螢光棒,其包括….

A與B都是螢光棒,A產品可生產、製造、販賣、使用,但B卻無法阻止,此時B專利需加上產品使用方法專利,如此可防止將釣魚用螢光棒用於檢查子宮頸。
B專利更改如下:
一種檢查子宮頸用螢光棒,其包括…
一種檢查子宮頸之步驟,其至少包括下列步驟:
將一螢光棒照射子宮頸…

如此醫院就不可以螢光棒檢查子宮頸之方法招攬生意,當醫院要使用螢光棒檢查子宮頸之方法,必須由我方授權,當授權後醫院還是會拿釣魚用螢光棒,但是我方至少拿到方法之授權金。
Summary
Select a descriptive preamble describing the overall function of the machine to be claimed, either a distinctive name, such as “power lawn mower,” or a made-up phrase, as apparatus for(performing a specified function).”
3.1裝置專利之元件
Elements of Apparatus Claims
專利請求項之元件,必須有一定名稱,第一次用到元件時,需於元件前加上數字,例如:一手把、一光源、一開關,第二次提到元件時,須於元件前加上『上述』,英文為「said」,第三次提到元件時同樣加上『上述』。
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

不同元件之間的連結關係,需表達清楚,其連接關係盡量用上位用語,元件間的連結關係盡量以元件功能為導向。

A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
B
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

B專利之開關設於手把,A專利之開關設於手把前端,顯然B專利範圍大於A專利範圍,要避免此種專利迴避之產生,必須做兩件事:
用上位之連結關係用詞撰寫專利範圍;同時於說明書中說明各種連結係,千萬不可寄望均等論,撰寫專利範圍時只要發現有專利迴避之可能,請於說明書中添加說明,同時找尋上位用詞撰寫專利範圍。
Summary
Find the main elements or parts of the machine to be claimed. Make each element the subject of one clause of the body of the claim. The claim must name the elements and tell how they are related to each other either physically and/or functionally and cooperatively to be the article or to do the job stated in the pre-amble.
3.2工作部件
A Workpiece or Environmental Element
一種與手電筒連接之發光二極體,其包括…
手電筒為工作部件,對手之發光二極體不與手電筒一起搭配使用就不會侵犯專利,因此專利請求項中需避免將此種非必要之工作部件寫入請求項。
Summary
Inferentially claim workpieces and environmental elements and inferentially claim elements not critical to the claimed combination which are not likely to be made and/or sold by the patentee. Do not recite them as one of the claim elements. This broadens the claim scope by not including elements not supplied by the patentee.
3.3負限制
Negative Limitations
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
當我方發現上述結構中之,有一種以雷射二極體為光源之手電筒已經存在時,需使用負限制,其專利更改為:
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接,上述光源不包括雷射二極體。

負限制也可以排除一段數值,例如:
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接,上述光源之波長不包含700NM以上。
Summary
Avoid negative limitations except in unusual cases where you think they are the clearest way to state the limitations. But in general, tell what an element is, not what it is not.
3.4支持說明書與圖式
Support in Specification and Drawings
專利請求項中使用之任何字眼,須於說明書與圖式中能找到。
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

「一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端」,但是說明書或是圖式中卻說明「一開關,上述開關設於上述手把」,如此位導致請求項無效,因此撰寫專利時,必須先將專利請求項寫好,引用專利請求項之用詞撰寫說明書與畫出圖式,如此可避免前後不一致之用詞出現。
Summary
Have clear and unambiguous support in the detailed description for all words and phrases in the claim, so that anyone can under-stand how the claim reads on the description. Also, all structures described in the claim must be illustrated in the drawing, even old or conventional things.
3.5 元件的命名
Naming the Elements
請求項之元件命名時,需和說明書一致,同時元件之名稱以一般習知之技術名稱為主,當一個元件找不到習知技術時,我方需自行定義元件名詞,再將此定義元件之名詞寫入專利請求項。
A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一發光二極體,上述發光二極體與上述開關連接。
B
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一雷射二極體,上述雷射二極體與上述開關連接。

我方欲將A、B兩請求項撰寫成一請求項時,可撰寫為
C
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

當發現C之光源為習知技術時,C項請求項為無效,因此我方可自行定義「雷射二極體」、「發光二極體」之上位用語;定義:一種固態光源,其至少包括:雷射二極體或發光二極體,但不限於此。C請求項更改為:

一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一固態光源,上述固態光源與上述開關連接。

我也方可自行定義「雷射二極體」、「發光二極體」之上位用語;定義:一種晶粒光源,其至少包括:雷射二極體或發光二極體,但不限於此。C請求項更改為:

一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一晶粒光源,上述固態光源與上述開關連接。

定義:一種具促進植物生長之波長分別為:400~500NM、700~900NM、2000~10000NM。

1.一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接,上述光源發射具一種具促進植物生長之波長。
2.如申請專利範圍第1項之手電筒,其中,上述一種具促進植物生長之波長為400~500NM。
3. 如申請專利範圍第1項之手電筒,其中,上述一種具促進植物生長之波長為700~900NM。
Summary
Select a clear name for each element, based on the detailed speci-fication description where given. Where a broad scope name is desired, functional names, such as “a fastener” or “means for moving…,” should be used.
3.6 單數與複數元件
Singular and Plural Elements

一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

專利範圍之元件數量「一光源」,代表單數,原則上元件數量盡量寫「一」或「至少一」,英文為「at least one」,千萬不能寫複數個元件「a plurality of」,以免專利迴避發生。
A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
兩光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。
B
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接。

B專利不侵犯A專利,因為B少掉A中之一要件(光源)。
Summary
State the minimum number of similar elements needed where more than one is necessary to the claim. If any number more than one will do, use the phrase “a plurality.
3.7 重複定義之元件
Double Inclusion of Elements
A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接;
一光源,上述光源設於上述手把前端,上述光源與上述開關連接。

A 中有兩個光源,對於相同之元件,但是元件之位置不同,應以「第一」、「第二」來區分,應更改為:
A
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
第一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接;
第二光源,上述第二光源設於上述手把前端,上述第二光源與上述開關連接。

B
一種手電筒,其包含:
一手把;
一開關,上述開關設於上述手把前端;
一光源,上述光源與上述開關連接,上述一光源設於上述手把前端。
B中分別出現「光源」、「一光源」,此為錯誤,對相同元件而言,只能有一個名稱。
Summary
Do not put the same element in the claim twice under two differ-ent names. Watch dependent claims so as not to add as a further element something already included in a previous claim from which the new claim depends.
3.8 專利範圍之參考標號
Use of Reference Numerals in Claims

1. An electrically driven light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp assembly comprising;

an electrically insulating circuit board (12) having opposed first and second surfaces (14 and 16),

electrically conductive circuit traces (18) on said first surface (14) of said circuit board (12),

a plurality of LEDs (20, 22 or 24) each having a pair of electrical leads (26) in electrical engagement with said traces (18),

each of said LEDs (20, 22 or 24) including a heat sink (28),

a heat dissipater (30) disposed in parallel relationship to said circuit board (12),

said assembly characterized by said circuit board (12) presenting a hole (32) therethrough and around each LED (20, 22 or 24), and said heat sink (28) of each LED (20, 22 or 24) being disposed in thermal contact with said heat dissipater (30) for conveying heat from said LEDs (20, 22 or 24) to said heat dissipater (30).
Summary
Do not use reference characters from the drawings in claims, but it is not wrong to do so (if placed in parentheses).
3.9前置基礎
Antecedents; Indefiniteness
撰寫專利時,需
Summary
Use “a’ or “an” the first time you mention an element or part in a claim, where grammatical rules dictate. Use ‘the” or ‘said” after that, when referring again to the same element or part. Make sure the claim is consistent with itself, that each “the” or “said” element has one and only one clear antecedent in the claim, and that consistent, definite phraseology is used through-out the claim. In general, make sure the claim is definite and clearly understandable as to what it covers and how it reads on the detailed description and drawing.
4.0 相對術語
A Relative Terminology
Summary
Avoid use of comparative words, unless in the specifica-tion or the critical aspect of the comparison is also claimed.
41 替代性名稱
Alternative Expressions
Summary
Avoid alternative expressions, particularly names of parts. Make what claims cover definite.
42 元件之分解
Parts or Features of Elements
Summary
Select those parts or features of each element that are essential to the combination being claimed. Then describe then describe them in a olical order, preferably following the main description of the element and in the same clause of the claim. How many features need to be described and how broadly each should be recited is a matter of the claim scope (based largely on the prior art and the need to avoid an incomplete structure missing an essential component), but the principles are the same as used in selecting the elements and naming them.
43 撰寫孔之專利範圍
Claiming Holes
Summary
You may claim holes positively and make them claim elements. Better practice is to claim “a(member)having a hole, groove, slot, aperture, etc.
44 近似
A words of Approximation-Substantially, et al.
45 數值
B Numerical Ranges and Amounts
46 元件項次
Order of Elements
Summary
Describe the elements in some logical order, either along the series of actions performed by the claimed apparatus or by the sequential arrangement of its elements in the apparatus.
47 整合元件
Tying the Elements Together
Summary
Tie the elements together in the claim; claim machines, not parts. Do not leave even one element with no connection to another, or with no apparent purpose in the claimed combination. If it has no purpose in the combination claimed, it can probably be left out.
48 連接結構
Structural Connection
Summary
Connect the claim elements structurally, as required to make up a complete and operable combination. Use relatively broad words of connection where the prior art permits.

49 功能或操作敘述
Functional or Operational Expressions
Summary
Relate the claim elements functionally to each other. That is, tell how the parts move or cooperate with each other to accomplish the overall result stated in the preamble. Tell the following things where applicable about each element:
50 撰寫預期結果之專利範圍;過廣之功能性敘述
Claiming Desired Results; Overly Broad Functional Statements
Summary
Beware of overly broad functional statements, particularly those claiming only desired results. In practice, scrutinize the claim lan-guage and the prior art carefully, as many kinds of functional statements may not be permissible under recent Federal Circuit cases, particularly defining an element or feature by what it does rather than by what it is.
51 藉此之術語意義
“Whereby” Clauses
Summary
Either avoid whereby clauses completely, or make sure the func-tion stated as the object of the whereby clause necessarily follows from the previously recited structure in the claim. Other words and particularly “means for” limitations will do the same job, and do it as well or better in most instances.
52功能性術語之位置
Location of Functional Clauses
Summary
Put functional clauses where you think most logical
53 裝置或步驟之術語
The “Means” or “Step” Clauses
Summary
Means clauses are proper in combination claims. They are a sim-ple way to define functions performed broadly. They are gov-erned by 35 U.S.C §112, paragraph 6. To invoke that statue, you need use only the statutory language “means” or ”step” for performing a specified function; that is, an act or operation such as “means for reciprocating the container. “A” means” or “step” clause may cover one element. 10,000 elements, half of one ele-ment, or even a hole; it covers whatever is described in the speci-fication, plus equivalents. However, because the scope of the means or step may be restricted, as just indicated, it is recom-mended that the claim writer avoid these claim limitations and instead give the element or step an appropriate descriptive name not including the words “means” or “step”.
54 撰寫不同領域之專利範圍
In General
Summary
Present a “reasonable” number of claims, given the nature and scope of the invention over the prior art. This varies widely from case to case. Avoid extra claims adding only things old in the art. The narrowest claim or claims should be quite detailed, including all significant structure , both to clearly catch copyist infringers and also to try to get some claims allowed on the first Office action. In that case, you will then be arguing only allowable scope of the invention, not whether or not it is patentable.

55 重複之專利範圍
Duplicate Claiming
Summary
Avoid claims that are “substantial duplicates” as to what is cov-ered, particularly independent claims. Avoid claims that differ only by items clearly old in the art, or highly conventional.
56 錯誤之多項附屬項
Undue Multiplicity
Summary
Avoid presenting “too many” claims in total, and where a large number of claims must reasonably be presented, make sure there are clear-cut differences between the claims. Dependent claims will help in avoiding multiplicity rejections. Basically, be reasonable, particularly where more than ten claims are thought necessary.
57 舊組合
Old Combination; Overclaiming
Summary
The old-combination rejection should no longer be received. But, nonetheless, claim the new things your inventor contributed, not in combination with a lot of old and unchanged things. Point out what your inventive contribution is, not the old environment where it is used. Use Jepson claims (section 57) or subcombination claims (section 59) to avoid this problem. In addition to avoiding invalidity on a purely technical defense, claims to “the invention” are better received by the examiner and more likely to be allowed. But because the measure of a damages award for an infringement can be based on the entire claimed invention, there can be addi-tional claims to the entire combination, which may be cancelled if rejected.
58 不完整
Incomplete
Summary
To the extent feasible, claim complete combinations of elements. But, it is perfectly proper and advisable to claim a novel subcombi-nation under the cases cited above in section 59.
59 不明確
Vague and Indefinite
Summary
Avoid “vague and indefinite” claims. Make claims certain as to what they cover and how they relate to the example to the example or examples described in the detailed description.
60 過長
Prolixity
Summary
The overall rule on claim scope is simple to state but often hard to follow:
“The claim should not be too broad nor too narrow, not incom-plete nor too complete; it should be just right.”
61 新技術
New Matter
62 上位
63 均等論
64 自行定義術語
65 內部證據
66 外部證據
67 可拆開之元件
68 習知可拆開之元件
69 專利撰寫目標
GOALS OF CLAIM WRITING
A. Covering the Invention
The inventor/client's invention has been disclosed in the specification and drawings of the application. The obiect or goal of the invention has been understood. The concept of the invention is understood. The claims should cover the disclosed invention. The coverage should be as broad as possible as discussed below. The claims should cover the inventor's concept. The claims should also protect the specific disclosed embodiments. Some claims should be sufficiently detailed that even if the broad claims covering the inventor's concept are held invalid, anyone who copies any of the inventor's disclosed preferred embodiments will infringe a valid detailed claim.
B. Claims Coverage Should Be as Broad as Possible
Broad coverage means not only that every particular preferred disclosed embodiment is protected in the claims, but that the claims cover all expected and unanticipated equivalents that competitors and others may later develop and all intentional and unintentional copies of the claimed invention which embody the inventor's concept. The inventor/client will compare a competitive or a similarly functioning product or process with the patented embodiments. If the client sees similar structure, operation
and/or result, he will want to be able to use his patent to halt an infringement. It is the claim drafter's iob to have written the claims in the application to not only cover what the attorney and the inventor/client could at the time of application prosecution have envisioned as competing products, but to cover competitive products which neither the inventor nor the attorney thought of or could even have imagined at the time, but which employ the concept of the invention.
C. Cover Competing Products or Methods
A claim should cover a product that is identical to the invention particularly identical to the preferred embodiments.
A claim should cover a product or a method that is similar to the claimed invention in that:
a. The similar product or method to be covered is different than that disclosed in the disclosure or specification and drawings of the patent, but embodies the same inventive concept.
b. The competitive product or method achieves the same result. Patent claims typically are not result dependent that is, they do not merely claim an apparatus or method for achieving a particular result. Instead, they claim several product elements or a series of method steps which achieve a particular result. Nonetheless the claims should be broad enough to reach to a competitive product or method which is substantially similar to, or which has no substantial differences from or is interchangeable with or which accomplishes substantially the same result in substantially the same way (a restatement of the Doctrine of Equivalents which has evolved through judicial precedents) possibly by using the same or a related structure or process. The attorney should envision and write the claims to cover various undisclosed, even unimagined equivalents of the embodiments of the invention that
are disclosed in the application and that are included in the inventor's concept.
D. Avoid the Prior Art
The claims should be as broad in scope as the prior art permits, should not read on the prior art, but should improve upon it. The prior art establishes the maximum breadth of claim scope. The concept of the invention typically is its distinguishing feature over the prior art. The claims should be broad, but should include the concept of the invention which distinguishes it from the prior art.
E. No Unnecessary Limits
Coupled with the avoidance of the prior art is the avoidance of unnecessary limitations in the claims, those not dictated by prior art or by proper form under the rules and practices of claim drafting which are in part set out in the Manual of Patent Examining Procedures and are required by 35 U.S.C. section 112 of the Patent Act.
70 撰寫高價值之專利
HOW TO WRITE THE BROAD CLAIM
A. Use Different Classes of Claims
Mechanical inventions are of numerous types. Some inventions can be covered by different classes of claims:
l . Nearly all mechanical inventions, except methods, can be expressed in product or apparatus claims which describe the structure in terms of its elements, their relative locations and their cooperation. Product claims should be used for mechanical inventions where possible.
2. Even method inventions may have a novely unobvious product analog so that some method inventions can be stated in product terms and vice versa. A broad example of that would be a method claim comprising various steps, each of which is performed by respective machine elements and a corresponding analog claim to an apparatus comprising the various machine elements that perform the various steps.
3. Sometimes a unique structure, or workpiece, or component element or starting material, etc. is used during the performance of the method. Product claims can be directed to that feature used in the method. The claim writer should review any method invention to see if a product claim could be written on any aspect of the method.
4. A method claim is a series of steps of manipulation5 whether the steps would be performed wholly by machine or partly by person so long as they are not purely mental steps (an algorithm, which is dealt with in connection with electronics and computer claims). Any invention which lies in the manipulation of an object is susceptible to a method claim, which should be written.
5. As noted above certain product inventions include different respective means which perform different manipulative steps. Maybe a method analog claim can be written wherein each means for performing a step in a product claim can be included in a
method claim as a recitation of the performance of that step.
6. A product covered in a product claim may in part perform, or may have some subassembly which performs, a novel process or method, and that may be included in a separate method claim.
7. Where the method is solely the function performed by the product covered in a product claim, and the method would not otherwise be unobvious, then the method should not be claimed.
8. Product by process claims should also be considered to claim a product where a novel, hopefully patentable method is used to produce or fabricate a particular product. The patentability of the resulting product itself as a product is judged under sections 102 and 103 of the Patent Act, not by the patentability of the method by which the product is produced. If a new method is used to produce an existing product a product by process claim would not be allowable under sections 102 or 103.
71專利侵權分析

J.L
J.L 的照片
專利範圍撰寫技術

拜讀兩位大作, 深覺字字千金!! 對發明人而言, 實在是幫助良多!!
這種不藏私的精神, 真令人佩服!!!
要寫如此長的文章須要花很多時間, 但對有意學習專利的發明人, 卻是長久的!!

台灣之專利能夠蓬勃發展就因為是這種無私的精神!!
謝謝!!

J.L.

訪客 (未確認)
訪客 的照片
r

>1.1 需對全球專利作詳細檢索

您講的很對,只是,關鍵點如何檢索沒交代。
檢索並不是單純地將關鍵字輸入就好了。需要考慮的事情,其實很多。不然,一下檢索出10000篇,難到真要一一閱讀?檢索的重點在於,如何清楚地掌握關鍵字可能的變化,以及如何限制搜尋範圍,降低無關篇數。舉個例子來說:現在名為CD-ROM的東西,在20年前剛開始發展時,每家公司都必然有自己一套的命名方式,所以,如何將這些可能的變化掌握住,也是搜尋時必須注意的。多利用經專家分類的專利分類號,也是很重要的降低無關篇數手段。否則,明明要找CPU 散熱片,卻找到一大堆冷氣機、電冰箱的散熱片,不是自找麻煩?

1.2 詳細說明技術背景

您說的這點,我到有不同的見解。我反倒不建議將背景交代得非常清楚,除非客戶的專利是前有未有的技術。因為,背景寫得很清楚,並不會增加案件的核准率,畢竟審查委員是依據”發明內容、實施方法”等進行審查,反而,有可能讓審查委員省力,將自己承認的習知技術作為引證案,再以”本案為習知技術的組合,為熟知該項技術者易於思及”,而以缺乏進步性核駁專利申請案,所以,如何撰寫”先前技術”的內容,還是得看實際情況,一切以能輔助申請案被核准的機率為原則(有幫助的就提,沒幫助的就別自找麻煩)。就算,審查委員的觀點是不正確的,客戶是還得另外花錢提再審查。我們何必自找麻煩呢?另外,就算審查委員找到數篇很相似的技術,再自行組合成本案,我們也可以用”需要這麼多篇才能組合,並非易於思及”為由答辯。但若自己先列舉出來,反而佈下不利的證據。

>A:審查官審查妳的專利時,若查到一篇和你最接近的專利,妳的專利就會沒辦法過。

這樣的說法也有問題;若自己預先知道有一篇專利跟自己欲申請的很像,還有誰會想浪費前提出申請?更何況,明知很像又列在申請案中?既然已有很像的前案存在,就應該要考慮改自己的設計,迴避才是,而不是申請專利。

>B:台灣的審查官通常不太檢索專利,因此妳申請的專利很容易準,改天妳的 >專利發大財了,競爭對手想做妳的專利時,他會找出和你最接近的專利,詳細 >寫出一些理由送到專利局,到時候妳的專利很容易被撤消。

同樣地,何必自找麻煩?並不是列出前案,就不會因為這些前案而被撤銷專利權。因為,每個人解讀前案的觀點並不一樣,萬一讓對手找到可作為反證的觀點時,才真的會因此被撤銷專利。何必幫助審查委員或對手節省搜尋相關前案的時間呢?再說,審查委員或對手不見得找得到呀?
還有,你認為台灣的審查官通常不太檢索專利,所以容易准。這個觀點已不是正確的了。。現在,台灣的審查委員都被要求必須提出證據,才能核駁。但是,台灣的審查委員都很主觀,只要找到一篇很像的,就會以易於思及而核駁。不像美國的審查委員採取絕對的新穎性,只要找不到完全一樣的,就會核准專利。所以,台灣的專利反而比較難准(這也是一個曾申請過很多專利的發明人告訴我的現象)。

>D:當專利審查官,找到和你最接近的專利時,由於妳的當初沒把最接近的專 >利講出來,當你想要補充時,專利法已經不准妳再補充了,到時候,真是有口>難言。

您講的應該是指發明內容需要充分揭露,才不會需要另外補充吧? 跟前案是否有揭露似乎沒有關聯。 只要找得出反證,證明審查委員的觀點是不客觀、不正確的,都有答辯的機會,應不會有口難言。

>A:你若將最接近的專利講出來,可減少審查官審查之時間,妳的專利很快就會準。

專利申請案件量非常的多,審查委員才那麼幾個,照著排隊等被審查到,恐怕也是1年後的事,跟有沒有提供很多前案,似乎並沒有直接的關聯。何況,說不定列出太多前案,審查委員必須一一詳細閱讀,反而拖長審查時間。要想讓審查進度快一點,應該從想辦法清楚、簡單地讓審查委員了解申請案的技術核心。

>B:你若將最接近的專利講出來,改天妳的專利發大財時,競爭對手不可以 >妳C:講出的最接近專利來推翻妳的專利,他若是計劃要推翻妳的專利,他要 >找出你沒提過之專利才能推翻,妳講過的專利他都不可以用。

要有這種效果,還得看對方是不是夠笨,看不出可攻擊之處。所謂百密難免有一疏,你怎麼確定,再寫申請案時已經想清楚與自己所列的前案有很明顯的區別,不會被拿來做文章?所以,應不列出來,但仍嘗試針對前案做明顯的區別,事先預防,才是吧?

>D:你若將最接近的專利講出來,我想全世界沒有人能夠推翻妳的專利了,妳 >就可以高枕無憂了,不會整天害怕被人撤銷專利權。

通常被智財局核准的專利,很難被推翻的,除非審查委員是白痴,有明顯的疏失,跟有沒有列出前案似乎沒直接的關聯。也就是說,事實上,已核准的專利案被撤銷真的很難,如果你曾有寫作”舉發”、”異議”你就會知道,真的很難撤銷已核准之專利,畢竟這攸關智財局的面子,若因此撤銷專利,不就顯得之前核准的審查委員很白痴?所以,除非能找到一模一樣的前案,不然,真的不容易被撤銷。

>E:你若將最接近的專利講出來,審查官不得利用妳講出來的最接近的專利, >來推翻妳的申請案,因此不要害怕將最接近的專利的專利講出來。

這真是太誤導了吧?如果是這樣,我將已核准的專利列於申請案中,再將其所描述的內容用另一種表達方式提出專利申請,我也可以取得與之相同的專利權?專利制度哪可能這樣訂?

>1.3專利迴避:

您提的觀點也是對的,但重點在於如何做。由於,每個人的思考模式很固定,也很容易自我限制,因此,與常有設計claim經驗的專利工程師充分溝通,會對於設計claim很有幫助,這也是專利工程師的價值所在。

另外,claim設計的重點在於如何用最少的元件勾勒出其核心(也就是獨立項),再用附屬項架構出其可能的變化。如此,就算沒有將其可能的變化在事先想清楚,也不會因此導致權益受損。這是因為,核心掌握住了,不論對手如何變化,都將只是架構在這個核心之上而已,仍沒有脫離專利範圍之外。舉例說明:申請範圍圍:一個具有四個輪子的移動物體。如此,不論競爭對手如何變化出休旅車、卡車、吉普車…..都沒有脫離所設計出的claim範圍之外。所以, claim設計的重點並不是在於如何設想可能的變化,而是在於如何抓住核心,因為,核心抓住了,才真的不用怕別人如何迴避。所謂核心,簡單地講,就是欲達成發明目的所必須的元件,就是所謂的核心與重點。如同前面所述,車子的目的是讓一個盒體能移動;所以,欲達成此發明目的,其必要元件當然就包含此盒體、還有能讓盒體移動的四個輪子、以及能帶動這四個輪子的機械裝置。至於這個盒體有沒有窗戶、窗戶的玻璃是不是電動都跟發明的目的(可移動的盒體)沒直接關聯,所以這些窗戶、電動車窗變就得其可能的變化(附屬項)。

在事先設想可能的變化是為了方便抓侵權;如同以上的例子,當法官或是其他不懂技術的人來閱讀專利範圍時,若能清楚地列出出休旅車、卡車、吉普車就是一個具有四個輪子的移動物體時,我們根本不用花什麼力氣去解釋他們事實上是相同的。

>引言:專利的價值在於專利範圍的撰寫,一份高價值的專利範圍能保證無人能>破解你的產品,因此專利範圍撰寫技術相當值錢,也因此市場上不會有人公開>教導專利範圍撰寫技術,筆者耗費許多金錢委託多間國內外專利事務所專寫專>利,同時參加多種專利研討會,從許多人口中套出一點許技術(因為沒人肯說,>只能用套),加上由國外購買相關書籍以及參閱國外專利,及本身撰寫專利之實>務,才彙集此專利範圍撰寫技巧,此份專利範圍撰寫技巧真是一字千金。

我只能告訴您,要真正能將這些原則融入所寫出的claim,只有靠不斷地練習,他們只能教原則,而原則、理論很多教授都很會講、很會教。每個個案情況不一,每個個案的核心點也都不同,並沒辦法清楚地交代如何一步步地寫出設計周全的claim。而且,事實上能抓到核心,真的跟個人的天份有關,有的人一下就想到如何設計,有的人想一輩子還是想不到。想寫好專利說明書,還是老話一句:只有靠不斷地練習,再加上一點天份。

光看別人寫的,並不會提昇自己的寫稿能力,因為,看跟寫,是差很多的。看別人寫的,頂多學習別人寫作的小技巧,並沒有辦法學習到如何抓住重點、核心。而抓住重點、核心才是真正需要去學習、去累積經驗的。

事務所的專利工程師並非都是天才,只是練習的機會比一般人多很多,充分運用事務所培養出來的專利工程師,才是充分保護企業的技術,比較好的模式

KKK3
KKK3 的照片
世界愈來愈平

拜讀兩位前輩的見解與經驗精華,獲益良多 :D
不過有一件自己覺得蠻可怕小事想在這裡說一下,
因為我是入門沒多久的青頭小子,不知道以往的專利檢索環境如何
英文不強,多少會怕,所以在USPTO/EPO看資料只會那幾招 :oops:
最常去,比較有把握的,果然還是TIPO/SIPO了
說了一堆沒用的前言,只是想表達 :
資訊的進步在專利資料檢索上的進展真的是一日千里吧 :shock:
因為前輩這篇留言時間點在2004/02/05
當時顯然要查詢前案與專利案的法律有效狀態是極不易的
因為我看到前輩說"通常被智財局核准的專利,很難被推翻的"
就試著上TIPO查了一下有歷年被舉發掉的專利紀錄,
不限年限查的結果是"共 4998 筆"
其中2005/01/01-2006/09/30公告者為54筆
....沒2秒鐘就得到全的表列與詳盡的答辯內容.... 8)

現在每隔一小段時間(數月,不到半年)各專利局的網站設計就會大幅更新
而且每周都會有即時性的專利資料
時代在進步啊...真不知道我這時候才在起步學當個專利人,
是幸還是不幸呢? :?:

maligabi
maligabi 的照片
Re: 世界愈來愈平

KKK3 wrote:拜讀兩位前輩的見解與經驗精華,獲益良多 :D
不過有一件自己覺得蠻可怕小事想在這裡說一下,
因為我是入門沒多久的青頭小子,不知道以往的專利檢索環境如何
英文不強,多少會怕,所以在USPTO/EPO看資料只會那幾招 :oops:
最常去,比較有把握的,果然還是TIPO/SIPO了
說了一堆沒用的前言,只是想表達 :
資訊的進步在專利資料檢索上的進展真的是一日千里吧 :shock:
因為前輩這篇留言時間點在2004/02/05
當時顯然要查詢前案與專利案的法律有效狀態是極不易的
因為我看到前輩說"通常被智財局核准的專利,很難被推翻的"
就試著上TIPO查了一下有歷年被舉發掉的專利紀錄,
不限年限查的結果是"共 4998 筆"
其中2005/01/01-2006/09/30公告者為54筆
....沒2秒鐘就得到全的表列與詳盡的答辯內容.... 8)

想請問一下如何找到這些資訊?感激!

現在每隔一小段時間(數月,不到半年)各專利局的網站設計就會大幅更新
而且每周都會有即時性的專利資料
時代在進步啊...真不知道我這時候才在起步學當個專利人,
是幸還是不幸呢? :?:

ides13
ides13 的照片
Re: 世界愈來愈平

maligabi wrote:
因為我看到前輩說"通常被智財局核准的專利,很難被推翻的"
就試著上TIPO查了一下有歷年被舉發掉的專利紀錄,
不限年限查的結果是"共 4998 筆"
其中2005/01/01-2006/09/30公告者為54筆
....沒2秒鐘就得到全的表列與詳盡的答辯內容.... 8)

想請問一下如何找到這些資訊?感激!

想請問一下如何找到這些資訊?感激!

要在一堆文字中,找到這還真不容易啊。

KKK3
KKK3 的照片
TIPO專利公報資料檢索

Dear fellows

請連到
http://www.tipo.gov.tw/
經濟部智慧財產局 > 專利 > 專利資料檢索 > 中華民國專利公報檢索系統
於〔雜項資料〕欄位中,鍵入查詢關鍵字"舉發成立"即可得到資料庫中所有
因舉發成立而消滅的專利清單(共 4998 筆),點選想查看其舉發過程的專利〔序號〕即可

活用這個系統,就可在極短的時間內查到想要的資料

不只台灣,如今各國專利局在資料公開/電子化方面的努力皆不遺餘力,
如果不能跟著這些隨時更新的資料與IT技術跑,
恐怕不太妙哦 :o

maligabi
maligabi 的照片
Re: TIPO專利公報資料檢索

KKK3 wrote:Dear fellows

請連到
http://www.tipo.gov.tw/
經濟部智慧財產局 > 專利 > 專利資料檢索 > 中華民國專利公報檢索系統
於〔雜項資料〕欄位中,鍵入查詢關鍵字"舉發成立"即可得到資料庫中所有
因舉發成立而消滅的專利清單(共 4998 筆),點選想查看其舉發過程的專利〔序號〕即可

活用這個系統,就可在極短的時間內查到想要的資料

不只台灣,如今各國專利局在資料公開/電子化方面的努力皆不遺餘力,
如果不能跟著這些隨時更新的資料與IT技術跑,
恐怕不太妙哦 :o

感謝不盡,可是為什麼舉發不成立的案件亦在其中?

訪客 (未確認)
訪客 的照片
專利範圍撰寫技術

A B C
COMPRING COMPRING COMPRING
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4
5

B不侵犯A 因為 B少4。
C侵犯A因為C COMPRING 1234。

這邊看不太懂ㄟ??

煩請說明一下

Log in or register to post comments